Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States
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When Jesus claimed to be the Son of God before the Jews, did the Jews believe that He had meant Word (Wisdom) of God? If not, what did they think He meant by it? Why didn't Jesus just explain it to them?

I would like first to reword your first question. It should read: When Jesus 'said' not 'claimed' for our Lord Jesus Christ did not 'claim' to be the Son of God, He 'is' the Son of God.

Although the terms Son of God and Logos or Word (Wisdom) of God are titles which refer to our Lord Jesus Christ they do have different meanings. Our Lord did not tell the Jews that He is the Logos but He showed them clearly His wisdom and instead of believing, they felt offended. "And when He had come to His own country, He taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished and said, "Where did this Man get this wisdom and these mighty works? Is this not the carpenter's son? Is not His mother called Mary? And His brothers James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? And His sisters, are they not all with us? Where then did this Man get all these things? So they were offended at Him" (Mt 13:54-57).

The Jews were waiting for the Messiah, a king who will deliver them from oppression. The Holy Scriptures that the Jews had in their own hands testified that the Christ is the Son of God.
"The LORD has said to Me, 'You are My Son, Today I have begotten You. Ask of Me, and I will give You The nations for Your inheritance, And the ends of the earth for Your possession" (Ps 2:8).

Who has ascended into heaven, or descended? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has bound the waters in a garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is His name, and what is His Son's name, If you know? (Prov 30:4)

The Lord directed their view to the Holy Scriptures but they did not heed, "But you do not have His word abiding in you, because whom He sent, Him you do not believe. You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me. But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life" (Jn 5:38-40).

Even when they asked Him the question bluntly they were not satisfied with the answer "Then the Jews surrounded Him and said to Him, "How long do You keep us in doubt? If You are the Christ, tell us plainly." Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in My Father's name, they bear witness of Me. But you do not believe, because you are not of My sheep, as I said to you. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me" (Jn 10:24).
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